Fast Fourier Transformation:
Fast Fourier transforms are computed with the FFTW library.
A fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm computes the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of a sequence, or its inverse (IFFT). Fourier analysis converts a signal from its original domain (often time or space) to a representation in the frequency domain and vice versa.
see Wikipedia for more information
R = rand(5000,5000);tic(); Y = fft(R); toc